Discuss the role of absorption as a determinant of bioavailability

W‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍RITING TIP: To earn maximum points — use case examples, supportive documentation, or salient information from the textbook and/or external credible source. Be sure to cite and reference all sources in all three posts, giving credit to the authors while showing critical thinking beyond opinion. There are several websites “out there” that you may find helpful, but remember that websites are not credible sources. While you can certainly use websites to further bolster claims, websites should not be the only type of source listed. Please respond to two (2) other students who have options that are different from the option you chose and respond in a substantial manner before the deadline. Discussion Board Question [Option 1] Discuss the role of absorption as a determinant of bioavailability, a crucial clinical parameter in the pharmacokinetic process. Expand on the bioavailability of various routes of drug administration including orally administered drugs, intravenous administration, nasal/sublingual administration, etc. What role does the first pass effect have on bioavailability? What are some clinical ramifications that a clinician may encounter when it comes to the bioavailability of generic medications. Remember, bioavailability is used to determine bioequivalence when evaluating brand name and generic medications. Lastly, expand on why the absence of generic product alternatives is an important issue for clinicians when it comes to clients with limited financial resources or those who have inadequate response to the generic formula and/or cannot afford trade name products. See the attached required readings for this option located in the Resources tab. Indicate which option you are choosing at the start of the post. Discussion Board Question [Option 2] The liver is an esse‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ntial organ in the pharmacokinetic process of many drugs. When selecting a drug and dosage regimen for a patient with liver disease, prescribers take additional considerations for altered pharmacodynamics and impaired renal excretion (hepatorenal syndrome). While much is still unknown, clinical studies suggest that there is a decrease in clearance of drugs or active metabolites normally cleared by the kidneys. As clinicians, we occasionally (or often, depending on what occupational environment) work with clients with liver disease secondary to alcohol abuse/dependency or clients with other types of liver disease, such as Hepatitis C. What are some indicators of hepatotoxicity in clients that clinicians should be aware of? Which medications are most likely to induce hepatotoxicity? See the attached required readings for this option located in the Resources tab. Indicate which option you are choosing at the start of the post. Discussion Board Question [Option 3] The distribution phase involves drugs being absorbed through the blood stream before eventually reaching receptor sites. The amount of drug that ultimately reaches the receptor sites depends on a multitude of factors. Psychotropic medication must cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to enter the central nervous system (CNS). Lipophilic medications/drugs, which are fat-soluble, more readily penetrate the BBB for wider circulation in the body that hydrophilic drugs, which are water-soluble. Given what you have learned from this week’s reading materials (specifically, the article by Carlo and Alpert), which drugs should inherently be monitored more closely: lipophilic drugs or hydrophilic drugs? Why? Indicate which option you are choosing at the start of the post. Text Book Basic Pharmacology for Mental Health Professionals 3r Editi‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍on.

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