When and how ought they to do so?

question:
(1) If “sovereign” states do not protect their subjects’ human rights, ought other states to do so instead?
(2) If not, why not?
(3) If so, why?
(4) When and how ought they to do so?
PLEASE answer the questions in subheadings (straightforward with examples) using much of this key source below and also the recommended sources.
Key text: Michael Ignatieff, “Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry”, in Amy Gutmann ed., Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry, Princeton University Press, 2001.
Fröhlich, Manuel
“The Responsibility to Protect: Foundation, Transformation, and Application of an Emerging Norm”, in Fabian Klose ed., The Emergence of Humanitarian Intervention: Ideas and Practice from the Nineteenth Century to the Present, Cambridge University Press 2016.
Recommended sources
Barnett,
Humanitarianism and Human Rights: A World of Differences?,
Michael N., ed.
Cambridge University Press, 2020; see especially the essays in part 1.
Beech, Matt, &
“The Place of Human Rights in the Foreign Policy of Cameron’s
Peter Munce
Conservatives: Sceptics or Enthusiasts?”, British Journal of Politics and
International Relations 21:1 (116-131), 2019.
Besson, Samantha
“The Legitimate Authority of International Human Rights”, in Andreas
Føllesdal, Johan Karlsson Schaffer & Geir Ulfstein edd., Legitimacy of
International Human Rights Regimes: Legal, Political and Philosophical
Perspectives, Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Boucher, David
The Limits of Ethics in International Relations: Natural Law, Natural
Rights, and Human Rights in Transition, Oxford University Press,
2009, chh. 11-12 & Conclusion.
Coady, C.A.J.
“The Hazards of Rescue”, in Adam Etinson ed., Human Rights: Moral or
Political?, Oxford University Press, 2018.
Donnelly, Jack, &
Daniel Whelan
International Human Rights, Routledge, 2018 (5th edn.), ch. 10.
Forsythe, David P.
Human Rights in International Relations, Cambridge University
Press, 2018 (4th edn.), especially chh. 1 & 10.
Forsythe, David P.,
American Exceptionalism Reconsidered: U.S. Foreign Policy, Human
& Patrice C.
Rights, and World Order, Routledge, 2017.
McMahon
Fröhlich, Manuel
“The Responsibility to Protect: Foundation, Transformation, and
Application of an Emerging Norm”, in Fabian Klose ed., The Emergence of
Humanitarian Intervention: Ideas and Practice from the Nineteenth
Century to the Present, Cambridge University Press 2016.
Hitchcock,
“The Rise and Fall of Human Rights?: Searching for a Narrative from the
William I.
Cold War to the 9/11 Era”, Human Rights Quarterly 37:1 (80-106), 2015.
Ignatieff, Michael
The Rights Revolution, Anansi, 2000.
Independent
The Kosovo Report: Conflict; International Response; Lessons Learned,
International
Commission on
Kosovo
Oxford University Press, 2000.
International
The Responsibility to Protect: Report of the International Commission
Commission on
on Intervention and State Sovereignty (downloadable at various sites),,
Intervention and
International Development Research Centre, 2001.
State Sovereignty
Kersten, Mark “A Fatal Attraction? The UN Security Council and the Relationship between R2P and the International Criminal Court”, in Jeff Handmaker & Karin Arts edd., Mobilising International Law for ‘Global Justice’, Cambridge University Press, 2019.
Martin, Rex, & Rawls’s Law of Peoples: A Realistic Utopia?, Blackwell, 2006, David A. Reidy edd. especially essays 15 & 16.
Moyn, Samuel
Human Rights and the Uses of History, Verso, 2014, chh. 7-8.
Nesiah, Vasuki
“The Politics of Humanitarian Morality: Reflections on ‘The Hazards of
Rescue’”, in Adam Etinson ed., Human Rights: Moral or Political?, Oxford
University Press, 2018.
Normand, Roger,
Human Rights at the UN: The Political History of Universal Justice,
& Sarah Zaidi
Indiana University Press, 2008, ch. 10.
Ohlin, Jens David,
Theoretical Boundaries of Armed Conflict and Human Rights, Cambridge
ed.
University Press, 2016, chh. 1-4.
Peters, Anne
Beyond Human Rights: The Legal Status of the Individual in International
Law, trans. Jonathan Huston, Cambridge University Press, 2016.
Ralph, Jason, &
“Legitimacy Faultlines in International Society: The Responsibility to
Adrian Gallagher
Protect and Prosecute After Libya”, Review of International Studies 41:3,
553-573, 2015.
Reus-Smit, Christian “Struggles for Individual Rights and the Expansion of the International
System”, International Organization 65:2 (207-242), 2011.
Roff, Heather M. Global Justice, Kant and the Responsibility to Protect: A Provisional
Duty, Palgrave, 2013.
Silander, Daniel, & International Organizations and the Implementation of the Responsibility Don Wallace edd. to Protect: The Humanitarian Crisis in Syria, Routledge, 2015.
Slaughter, Joseph R. “Hijacking Human Rights: Neoliberalism, the New Historiography, and
the End of the Third World”, Human Rights Quarterly 40:4 (735-775),
2018.
Weiss, Thomas G.,
The Responsibility to Protect: Research, Bibliography, Background:
& Don Hubert
Supplementary Volume to the Report of the International Commission on
Intervention and State Sovereignty (downloadable here), International
Development Research Centre, 2001.
Weiss, Thomas G.,
Global Governance and the UN: An Unfinished Journey, Indiana University
& Ramesh Thakur
Press, 2010, especially part 3.
Williams, Bernard
“Humanitarianism and the Right to Intervene”, in idem, ed. Geoffrey
Hawthorn, In the Beginning was the Deed: Realism and Moralism in
Political Argument, Princeton University Press, 2005.
Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, resource centre: http://www.globalr2p.org/

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